As we mentioned in Part 1, here is a number of rhetorical methods of reasoning for you to know:
1. The fundamental method. Its essence is in a direct appeal to the interlocutor to whom you are revealing the facts that are the basis of your evidence.
A significant role here is played by digital examples and statistics. They are a wonderful backdrop to confirm your thesis. The numbers look more convincing: this source, in general, is more objective and therefore attractive. Using statistics, you need to know where the end line is: too many numbers will make your opponent feel tired and will not make a proper impression.
2. The method of contradiction. In essence, it is defensive. Based on the identification of contradictions in the reasoning, as well as the argumentation of the interlocutor and focus on them.
3. The method of comparison. It is very effective and of exceptional importance (especially when comparisons are chosen successfully).
It gives the speech exceptional brightness and great power of persuasion. To a certain extent, it actually represents a special form of the method of "drawing conclusions." This is another way to make the statement more “visible” and significant. Especially if you have learned to use analogies, comparisons with objects and phenomena that are well known to listeners.
4. The "yes, .. but ..." method. It is best used when the person you are talking to speaks with some bias. Since any process, phenomenon or object has in its manifestation both positive and negative points, the method of "yes, .. but ..." allows you to consider other options for resolving the issue.
5. The method of "pieces". It is often used - especially now, when dialogue, conversation, and discussion are actively being introduced into our lives instead of monologues. The essence of the method is to divide the monologue of your interlocutor into clearly distinguishable parts: “this is accurate”, “this is doubtful”, “there are very different points of view”, “this is clearly wrong”.
In fact, the method is based on the well-known thesis: since in any situation and conclusion, you can always find something inaccurate or exaggerated, a confident “offense” makes it possible to “relieve” situations to a certain extent, including the most complicated.
6. The "boomerang" method. It makes it possible to use the "weapon" of the interlocutor against himself. Evidence has no power, but it has an exceptional impact on the audience, especially if applied with a fair amount of wit.
7. The method of ignoring. As a rule, it is most often used in conversations, disputes, disputes. Its essence: the fact stated by the interlocutor cannot be refuted by you, but its value and significance can be successfully ignored. It seems to you that the interlocutor attaches importance to something that, in your opinion, is not so important. You state this and analyze it.
8. The method of excretion. Based on the change of the subject step by step.
9. The method of visible support. It requires particularly careful preparation. Using it is most appropriate when you are an opponent (for example, in a discussion). What does it consist of? Let's say, the interlocutor set out his arguments, facts, evidence on the issue of discussion, and now the floor is given to you. But at the beginning of your speech, you do not contradict him or object his statements. Moreover - in front of the listeners, come to the rescue of your opponent, bringing new points in his favor. But all this is just for the show! And then comes the counterattack.
Now comes the turn of your counterarguments, facts, and evidence. Go for it!